The perpetrators most commonly were identified as customers, pimps, managers, and intimate partners. More than half of the exotic dancers reported that they had been threatened with a weapon. Violence occurred in all venues of the sex industry, but severity and frequency and type of violence varied depending on indoor versus outdoor venues.
The women working in the outdoor setting reported higher prevalence of generalized physical violence; however, the indoor setting was associated with more sexual violence and threats involving weapons.
Raphael and Shapiro 2 also reviewed more than 25 research studies quantifying the level of violence in street prostitution. Eighty-two percent of the respondents reported physical violence and 68 percent reported rape. A staggering 68 percent of these prostitutes also met criteria for PTSD. Similarly, Walls 3 reported those who engaged in survival sex a consequence of poverty and minimal opportunity for improvement carried a far greater risk of developing depression, were more often psychiatrically hospitalized, and 4.
Holsopple 4 studied exotic dancers. One-hundred percent of the dancers reported that they had been physically assaulted during work-related activities at least once. The prevalence or assaults ranged from 3 to 15 times during the time of employment in the sex industry, with a mean occurrence of eight incidents. Forty-four percent of the women interviewed in that study reported that they had been verbally threatened, with a range of 3 to threats for those who reported threats.
These findings were substantiated by Maticka-Tyndale et al 5 who found similar results. A greater prevalence of physical assaults and unwanted sexual contact occurred in indoor settings e. The outdoor workers reported being slapped, punched, and kicked in contrast to the indoor workers who reported attempted rape more frequently. Wesley 8 found that dancers accepted as commonplace these physical violations of their bodies. Complicating the problem of documenting the prevalence of violence against sex workers is their reluctance to disclose it for fear of incriminating themselves or making themselves targets of additional verbal, physical, and sexual abuse.
Navigating the secrecy of working in the sex industry coupled with societal stigmatization also often results in social isolation, further complicating reporting, mental health, and subsequent treatment options. M was a divorced year-old woman who was a former exotic dancer and escort. She resided in a homeless shelter and only had temporary employment.
M had been seen by a different psychiatrist at the clinic the previous year and followed through in therapy with biweekly to monthly appointments during that time. When scheduling the current appointment, she was surprised to learn her initial psychiatrist had left the clinic and she would need to reinitiate treatment with a new psychiatrist.
Staff turnover in mental health clinics is inevitable, and this must be clearly explained to the patient. A clear line of communication is essential as this may represent an inconsequential shift for staff, but an irreparable loss for the vulnerable patient.
This is of special importance to the individual who has endured repeated betrayals and rejections to prevent this from being interpreted as yet another episode of abandonment.
M arrived early for the reevaluation; her worn-looking apparel consisted of a faded gray zip-down sweatshirt, torn jeans, and old tennis shoes. Her hygiene was mediocre. She seemed to carry a bit of shame in her appearance; this was unspoken, but it was clear self-confidence was lacking. Old scars were visible on her face and arms, each one depicting a harrowing tale. The deep ridges and multiple creases in her skin revealed a deteriorated woman appearing much older than her chronological age.
Her speech was spontaneous and intentional and there was no interruption in eye contact. Overall, her mood was euthymic and affect was full range and easily accessible.
M became dramatically blunted in affect when she recounted the horrific trauma of her past in a mechanical way. She readily opened the session depicting interpersonal discord and her current psychosocial stressors, including being unemployed, financially strapped, and in an unstable living environment. At first, the conversation flowed seamlessly without much break. Upon the first major pause, there fell a silence, leaving her visibly apprehensive.
And how am I supposed to feed my children? The psychiatrist reinitiated the conversation after a pause and offered words of encouragement to proceed. Moments of silence during the psychotherapy hour can communicate important psychodynamic information as well as serve to foster the therapeutic relationship. It is an opportunity for the patient to convey emotional and relational messages of need and meaning.
The psychiatrist could use silence to provide safety, understanding, and containment. R was a year-old single woman working as an escort at a location just off the main road of a popular tourist resort. She presented to the mental health clinic after she was allegedly sexually assaulted at work in a commonly frequented motel two weeks prior.
She reported the onset of acute anxiety and fearfulness after her most recent attack, and these feelings re-emerged as she described the attack to the psychiatrist. She quickly transitioned into the events of her youth. Notably detached from her graphic depictions, she described her earlier experiences. She began to chronologically relate incidents starting at the age of five when she was first sexually violated.
She was aware that her mother had used alcohol and street drugs while pregnant and that this caused her to have learning disabilities and developmental delay. As a toddler, she would have at most a single meal daily and frequently was locked in a dark closet. She was placed in multiple foster and group homes. Being the youngest of three siblings, she told a story of manipulation, negligence, public humiliation, and betrayal. By the age of 15, Ms. This allowed easy access to some money and afforded her a sense of importance and desirability.
The allure of instant acceptance and adoration was captivating and kept her immersed in the sex business for several years. Unfortunately, she sustained attacks both physical and sexual in nature, plus ruthless disparagement and humiliation by the intoxicated patrons. Eventually, she acquired employment in retail and attempted to exit the profession.
After being cut, beaten, robbed, gang raped and sodomized, tied up, and left to bleed to death, she again tried to dissolve all ties to the industry and sought help. After her second visit with the psychiatrist a male , staff noticed her transformation, which involved an overly enthusiastic demeanor and enhanced appearance jewelry and makeup plus more stylish and seductive attire when presenting for appointments.
I was just getting used to Dr. You make the decisions about what we discuss. It is important for members of the treatment team to communicate their observations to the treating psychiatrist and that staff on the team, including the doctor, not be changed abruptly without notice.
The psychiatrist should discuss with the staff possible behavioral changes that may occur, and endorse the importance of understanding how transference, countertransference, and concern about professional boundaries can affect such complicated situations.
In this case, when the psychiatrist was changed, the patient did not return for a long time. Yeah, I called off work and took the bus to get here because I know I did much better while I was in treatment.
I wonder how the termination with the previous doctor might have affected your feelings about returning? Transference is the process of the patient unconsciously attributing aspects of important past relationships, especially those of early caregivers, onto the psychiatrist. Dismissal or complete avoidance of the possibility of erotic transference issues especially with this population would be a therapeutic misstep; rather, transference should be confronted and worked through.
For example, although sex workers are over-represented among female murder victims, 9 sex workers often are viewed culturally as voluntarily bringing on the increased risk for violence themselves or are somehow impervious to such risk.
The patient may not keep herself safe because she does not know how to do so or does not think she has value. The patient who has been victimized deserves validation, and it should be articulated that she has value and is deserving of the same rights and protections as every other person.
The sex worker is subject to multiple and repeated trauma, often has few options for assistance, and often keeps her experiences secret. If the first disclosure is not well received or results in a negative or unsupportive response, it greatly impacts subsequent disclosures. If there is a perceived or actual lack of support, it may significantly limit opportunities or willingness to access social support and resources. However, of this study group, only 40 percent had any interface with mental health services.
When a group of women who had suffered a trauma history were separated into those working in the sex industry and those not, it was found that only 25 percent of sex workers sought mental health treatment while 45 percent of the other traumatized women did so. L was a year-old sex worker with no prior mental health treatment who was seen for weekly psychotherapy for treatment of depressive symptoms. The patient had divulged her trauma history to the male psychiatrist in the prior session.
Her ambivalence toward men was apparent. They treat you so nice at first, only to manipulate and take advantage of. Psychiatry, Volume 1, Second Edition. Many female and male patients have difficulty articulating their sense of injury to male psychiatrists.
Clearly, these patients are very vulnerable when there are boundary transgressions by the psychiatrist. Adapted from Gabbard G. Levy R, Lieberman SJ eds. Handbook of Evidence-Based Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. Psychodynamic psychotherapy uses self-reflection and self-evaluation.
This is made possible in part by the therapeutic alliance and inter-relationship with the psychiatrist. The patient explores coping strategies and relationship patterns. At the other end of the spectrum of prostitution are the street walkers. Most of them are addicted to drugs, and many were forced into prostitution against their will. Sex trafficking is an international, multi billion dollar business involving criminals who kidnap and enslave girls.
Girls as young as ten-years of age are snatched from their countries and sold into prostitution far away from their native homes. Studies show that large numbers of prostitutes were sexually abused during their childhood.
It is the fact of the sexual abuse, more than anything else, that seems to underlay how and why some of them become prostitutes. These are the people most likely to be addicted to drugs as well as to develop, or already have, serious health problems, not the least of which is HIV as well as other STDs.
Finally, there are women who see prostitution as their way out of poverty. While they may choose to sell themselves, it is economic necessity that drives them. These are people who are unable to get jobs and are sometimes the only bread winners in the family. Several men commented on the original article by saying that all of the reasons for paying for sex were not listed.
Among the motivating factors for them were: Believing they are ugly and unable to have sex without paying for it, 2.
Wanting sex but without all of emotional involvement that comes with a girlfriend, marriage and family; wanting casual sex with no obligations attached, 3. Being convinced that their genitalia is too small and that any average woman would laugh at and reject them, 4. Working long, hard hours leaving no time for dating and romance.
These are only a few of the reasons given. From my perspective, the major concern about these men is not so much that they pay for sex but that they seem blind to the plight of these women. They convince themselves that prostitution is a choice and that none of the women they see are exploited. In some cases, they might be right. A lot depends on where they go and who they see. These are difficult issues that stir controversy. There are those who advocate legalizing and regulating the sex industry.
There are others who are outraged by this for moral, or religious reasons. For example, should a married man, for any reason, see a prostitute? Do you believe that it can help a marriage?.. 12 Apr At the end of the spectrum are those women who are escorts or professional sex workers. Often, they work for themselves and charge sums of. Social service and sex Students_Sexua1 behavior Telephone sex Witchcraft and sex Young adults-Sexual behavior Youth-Sexual behavior _ poetry Erotic poetry _ Psychological aspects USE Sex (Psychology) _ Quotations, maxims, etc. Find Sex Therapy Counselling in Barrie, Ontario and get help from Barrie Sex COP is a full service psychology practice offering comprehensive we see children, adults, youth, and families for a wide range of psychological concerns.